Butland hurt himself moments before conceding Germany’s opener in Berlin’s Olympiastadion and he was in tears as he was taken off on a stretcher.
The Stoke player, 23, said he is “absolutely devastated”.
England manager Roy Hodgson will name his squad for the Euros, which begin in less than 11 weeks, on 12 May.
England face the Netherlands at Wembley in a friendly on Tuesday but Hodgson has no plans to call up a replacement for Butland, who had himself replaced the injured Joe Hart as first-choice keeper on Saturday.
Southampton’s Fraser Forster came on for Butland during the game on Saturday and will start against the Dutch, while Burnley’s Tom Heaton is also in the squad.
Hodgson, 68, described Butland’s injury as a “devastating blow” for the squad.
“It is very disturbing and upsetting for us to see someone who has worked so hard this season, and forced himself into a situation where many people are saying it is a good fight between him and Joe Hart for a first-team shirt, to fracture his ankle,” added the England manger.
“All of us felt enormous sympathy for him. But he was very strong and stoic about it.
“He said to me that he will come back stronger. That was good to hear.”
Capped four times by his country, Butland has been ever-present for Stoke in the Premier League this season.
The exact length of his recovery period is not yet known.
Have you added the new Top Story alerts in the BBC Sport app? Simply head to the menu in the app – and don’t forget you can also add score alerts for the Six Nations, your football team and more.