He has been a free agent since being released by the Turkish top-flight side last summer and has been training with the Black Cats in recent weeks.
Sunderland boss Sam Allardyce revealed he was keen to offer Eboue a deal last week and the 32-year-old has now put pen-to-paper.
He has signed for the remainder of the season, with Allardyce hopeful he can help the relegation battlers beat the drop.
A statement from the club read: “Sunderland AFC have completed the signing of defender Emmanuel Eboue on a short-term deal.
“The former Ivory Coast full-back will remain with the Black Cats until the end of the 2015-16 Barclays Premier League season, having impressed following his arrival on Wearside a number of weeks ago.”